The National Crimes Record Bureau (NCRB) has published its crime report for the year 2020. These statistics on cybercrimes make some striking revelations. Police across India registered a total of 50,035 cases of cybercrimes in 2020. It is an increase of 11.8 over 2019 (44,735) cases. The crime rate (cases per lakh population) under cybercrimes increased from 3.3 in 2019 to 3.7 in 2020.
The NCRB also gave information on the “intent” of the reported cybercrimes. In 2020, the motive behind cybercrimes was:
- Fraud: 30,142 (or 60%) cases.
- Sexual exploitation: 3,293 cases, or nearly 7% of all cases;
- Extortion: (2,440 cases);
- Causing disrepute (defamation): (1,706 cases), and;
- Personal revenge: (1,470 cases).
In 2020, these five motives accounted for 78 percent of all reported cybercrime cases.
Further, the entire criminal justice machinery is marred with huge pendency, with very low conviction rates.
A word of caution before we proceed further
There is no doubt that these numbers are concerning. While the bureau is careful to point out a word of Caution that this data does not necessarily imply increased crime. It could simply indicate that individuals are becoming better at reporting it. The tendencies identified in the research are intriguing.
The States with Highest reported Cybercrimes
Uttar Pradesh- 6280
Andhra Pradesh- 1207
The charge sheet rate across India stands at 49.0, much lower than 75.8% in IPC crimes.
The States with Highest Reported Major Cybercrimes
Tampering Source Code (S.65): Karnataka- 191, U.P- 118.
Unauthorized Access (S.66): Karnataka- 10109, Uttar Pradesh- 6616, Assam- 1500, Jharkhand- 941, Maharashtra- 394.
Identity Theft (S.66C): Karnataka- 3513, Jharkhand- 306, Uttar Pradesh- 275, Maharashtra- 211, Assam- 154
Cheating by Personation (S.66D): Karnataka- 6486, UP- 1878, Assam- 1160, Jharkhand- 203, Haryana- 181.
Publication of obscene/ sexually explicit act (S.67,67A): Uttar Pradesh- 2120, Assam- 1132, Odisha- 524, Karnataka- 406, Tamil Nadu- 399.
Child Pornography (S.67B): UP- 266, Karnataka- 122, Maharashtra- 120, Kerala- 101, Odisha- 71.
Cyber Fraud: Telangana- 3316, Maharashtra- 2032, Bihar- 1294, Odisha- 1079, UP- 837.
Credit card/ debit card Fraud: Total cases- 2870. Telangana- 611, Maharashtra- 539, Bihar- 509, Haryana-210.
Metropolitan cities: 809- Mumbai- 319, Delhi- 206, Hyderabad- 181, Ahmedabad- 41
Statistics around Prosecution and Disposal of Cases By Courts
Total Number of Cases Reported in 2020: 29643
Cases Pending Investigation from 2019: 34733
Case True but Insufficient Evidence or Untraced or No Clue: 8198
Total cases charge-sheeted (2019+2020): 9194
Chargesheeting rate: 49.0
Total cases pending trial (2019+2020): 25540
Cases disposed off without Trial (compounding/ quashing): 2692
Discharged cases: 64
Category: Cyber Crimes Against Women
Total cases for investigation: 2334
States with highest cases: Odisha- 556, Assam- 395, UP- 338, Tamil Nadu-188, Kerala- 119
Cases True but insufficient evidence or untraced or no clue: 444
Chargeeted Cases: 806
Court Pendency (last 2 years): 2065
Total Conviction (last 2 years): 11
Category: Cyber Crimes Against Women involving publication of sexually explicit material
Total cases for investigation: 2786
States with highest cases: Uttar Pradesh- 325, Odisha- 292, Assam- 211, Tamil Nadu- 147, Karnataka- 142
Cases True but insufficient evidence or untraced or no clue: 289
Chargeeted Cases: 690
Court Pendency (last 2 years): 1600
Total Conviction (last 2 years): 10
Category: Crime Against Women- Blackmailing/ defamation/ morphing/ fake profile
Total cases for investigation: 1236
States with highest cases: Odisha- 234, Assam- 184, Tamil Nadu- 41, Telangana- 34, Andhra Pradesh- 28
Cases True but insufficient evidence or untraced or no clue: 155
Chargeeted Cases: 116
Court Pendency (last 2 years): 465
Total Conviction (last 2 years): 1
Category: Child Pornography
Total cases for investigation: 1200
States with highest cases: Bihar- 106, Kerala- 86, Jharkhand- 71, Karnataka- 54, Tamil Nadu- 53
Cases True but insufficient evidence or untraced or no clue: 11
Chargeeted Cases: 510
Court Pendency (last 2 years): 2635
Total Conviction (last 2 years): 45
The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) is an Indian Govt agency. It is responsible for collecting and analyzing crimes data as defined by the IPC. It works under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA).
The NCRB brings out three annual reports. These are, (i) Crimes in India, (ii) Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India, and (iii) Prison Statistics. These reports are principle reference points for Police officers, researchers, media & policymakers.